Learn What Is And How To Study The Seebeck Effect

by iw_inundaweb 31 May

Have you heard of the Seebeck Effect? Do you know how to study the Seebeck effect or how to apply it in everyday life?

Doubts such as these are quite common among people who are interested in physics or thermoelectric issues.

If this is your case, then be sure to check out this post in its entirety and find out everything you need to know about the Seebeck Effect.

Seebeck Effect: What is it?

The Seebeck effect is the production of an electrical voltage, which is made between two conductors (or semiconductors). For this, they need to be made of different materials as well as being at different temperatures (thermal electromotive force).

This is an opposite effect of the Peltier, which is characterized by being a temperature gradient in two conductors (or semiconductors).

In this case, each conductor of different material is subjected to different electrical voltage, but within a closed circuit. Importantly, these feats can be considered as one, the Peltier-Seebeck, also known as thermoelectric effect.

The Seebeck effect occurs due to the generation of two phenomena. The phonon entrainment and the diffusion of charge carriers.

How to study the Seebeck Effect?

The Seebeck Effect Study Kit can directly assist the execution of laboratory experiments. Check below how to make one of them:

  1. Add a mixture of water and ice in a beaker. This is necessary to obtain an environment as close as possible to 0 ° C. Wait a little and then check the temperature;
  2. Then fill 80% of the test tube with water at room temperature. Then, fix it on the stand;
  3. In the water test tube, place one end of the K-type thermocouple;
  4. The other end should be placed in the beaker which has been filled with water and ice;
  5. Now place the thermometer in the test tube and wait for the thermal equilibrium. Then it will be necessary to measure the set temperature.
  6. The next step is to connect the thermocouple to the millivoltmeter and then note down the voltage value the equipment will display.
  7. Then start heating the thermocouple-water through the lamp;
  8. Simultaneously note the value of the voltage that the millivoltmeter will display, as well as the temperature on the thermometer. These notes should be made at 30-second intervals.
  9. Then, turn off the lamp or move it away and continue to write down these data during the cooling process, until the lamp reaches 20 minutes.

With the table in hand, you can do the analysis of the notes and then draw conclusions about the experiment.

Through this type of experiment it will be possible to check, for example, the heating / cooling rate

every 30 seconds, or even to determine the coefficient of Seebeck.

This is an excellent experiment alternative that can be performed to better understand how the Seebeck effect works in practice, since it is not necessary to use any kind of software for checking and comparing data.

How the Seebeck Effect is applied on a daily basis

The Seebeck effect can be observed in the following situations, such as:

Electronic Water cooler

Through the Seebeck effect it is possible to cool or heat the water of a water cooler, showing in practice its action.

Mini fridge

Because of the use of the Peltier cell, it is also possible to use this made to chill small things in mini refrigerators.


This is a very practical kind of practical experiment to put into practice. While a hot side of the apparatus is cooled through the use of liquid nitrogen, the cold side can reach temperatures close to 0 Kelvin.

Temperature measurement

In fact Seebeck can also measure the temperature. For this, the thermocouples are used, which can also be understood through the Seebeck Effect Study Set.


One of the best ways to demonstrate this effect in the classroom safely and fully effective is through the use of a Seebeck Effect Study Set. This equipment was developed especially for studies of this effect, as well as thermocouples.

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